Monday, January 2, 2017

I donated by best Apple-1 replica to the University of Connecticut, School of Engineering where I currently work.

Wednesday, April 30, 2014

Tuesday, April 8, 2014

Apple WOZPACK book reproduction.

Reproduction of the book containing Woz's hand written notes and other technical stuff, from the Apple-1 and Apple II days.

Assembled Apple-1 clone for sale

Clone of the "NTI" run.
For sale - 2,500.00 USD

Friday, April 4, 2014

Apple 1 blog update

Hi Everyone,

Just to let everyone know, I have been in transition lately - relocating, exploring new work options, etc.  I will pick up again when I get settled.


Tuesday, October 29, 2013

Steve Job's "childhood" home to become Historic Designation (and comments from Woz)

"The Silicon Valley home where Apple co-founder Steve Jobs grew up and built some of his first computers is now on the city's list of historic properties.
The historical commission in the city of Los Altos voted unanimously for the historic designation on Monday night, the Palo Alto Daily News reported. Any proposed renovations to the modest, ranch-style home now require additional review.
The home, where Jobs and his foster parents moved in 1968, is currently owned by Patricia Jobs, Steve Jobs' sister. The commission didn't need her permission for the designation, although she could appeal it to the city council.
Zachary Dahl, a senior planner with the city, said Patricia Jobs requested corrections to the city's evaluation of the property, but then didn't respond when it was sent to her for review.
"So I'm assuming that was an affirmative because I have had multiple communications with her over the past several weeks," Dahl said.
Steve Jobs, with help from his sister and Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak, built the first 100 Apple 1 computers at the home, according to the city's evaluation. Fifty were sold to a shop in neighboring Mountain View for $500 each.
Steve Jobs also wooed some of Apple's first investors and in 1976, established the first partnership for Apple at the home. The company later relocated to nearby Cupertino."
© 2013 The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.

Image Credit - Mercury News. 

John's comment: 

A snip of the above is false --  the computer(s) were designed and built by Steve Wozniak in his apartment, not far away.  They were not designed and built by Woz and Jobs... Woz did this ON HIS OWN.

After Printed Circuit Boards were fabricated (in 2 runs), based on Steve Wozniaks hand-wired design (after several iterations); Legend holds that Patricia, and a couple of her friends were paid $1.00 per board, to "stuff" components, in the "garage".   Jobs and Woz would then test each board, and pull components and re-stuff when pins were bent.

"I'd get yelled at if I bent a prong," Patricia Jobs told The Daily News in an interview last month.
(source, Mercury News, Sept 2013)

  So this whole bit, about Job's designing and building the Apple-1 in the garage, is completely FALSE.   Steve Wozniak did this on his own.  The prefabricated printed circuit boards (PCBs) were then stuffed with components, by Jobs, sis, and friends, in the "garage", afterwards.

So I pinged the Woz, and here is what he had to say:


In fact, both the Apple I and Apple ][ had been created and shown off at the Homebrew computer club before Steve Jobs knew they existed. I had given the Apple I design away for free to everyone there. At least one other club member had built one too.

No design ever took place in the garage. Nor did the manufacturing. The business took place in Steve Jobs’ bedroom, at least in the early days. He got parts and sales and publicity on his phone.

ʞɐıuzoʍ ǝʌǝʇs 

tv is wake zone

Wednesday, September 11, 2013

6800 Info from the Woz per Lionel Theunissen's Rig up and running the 6800

Woz's comments on Lionel Theunissen's A-1 rig running the 6800 cpu --

"I designed the computer for the 6800. The Apple I board even has an area for a dozen parts labelled "for 6800"…it also had to have these parts for the 6501, which was a barely cheaper version of the 6502. What these parts did was supply a faster harder clock signal to the chip. Otherwise, the pinouts of the 6800 and 6052 were compatible.

I could buy a 6800 for $40 as an HP employee. That's why I designed the computer for it. Then the 6502 got introduced for $25 ($20 for the 6501). I switched because it was better (in my judgment, with more addressing modes) and cheaper.

The Apple I ran on a 256-byte program, burned into 2 PROMs. We didn't have much memory density back then for these programmable chips. All you'd have have to do is to read my program (given away publicly) with the comments, and translate it to 6800 code. Tight, but doable.

The cassette board, for using a cassette tape drive to store programs, had a 256-byte program of its own on the board. In this case it was in one chip, as I recall. That too would have to be converted to 6800 language for a more complete project.

The next step would be to find some public domain 6800 BASIC and convert it to run in the memory addresses of this computer.

All-in-all, not too hard. But it's a special project worthy of commendation."

ʞɐıuzoʍ ǝʌǝʇs 

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

But wait and wait again... what!!! Did you say another white ceramic 6502 AND an 6820???

Wow!  you can get both the 6502 and 6802s AMI for just $2500.00 USD (Again, amazingly enough, free shipping [economy])

6502 = 1975 Date Code
6820 = 1976 Date Code

Pretty cool (but I have to wonder if they are still functional)

But wait... there's more !!! 6502 white ceramic (1976 Date Code)

Ebay   Only 1250.00 USD  (Or best offer, and who can beat "Free Shipping!!!!")

And yet another (1977 Date code) White Ceramic 6502

Just 999.00 USD !!!!

Friday, September 6, 2013

Monday, July 1, 2013

Woz, Wendell Sander - Five Apple-1 computers

Read the article by Steve Cassidy --  Image credit Mercury News.

Early Woz interview - Good stuff, great early video and images

Very cool video and images you may not have seen before...  although the title of the clip is wrong, check it out, early Apple 1 / Nolan Bushnell / Woz history --

Tuesday, March 5, 2013

Coming up for auction next week -- This one is functional.

Read about it here.

6301-1J PROM (A1 thru A4) from 1976

I'll have about 3 sets of the 6301-1J PROMs, programmed and available for purchase.  I will hang on to a few but willing to sell the others for any fanatics that want chips from 1976.  They are currently on order so I will drop some images once they arrive.  They were VERY expensive so I must disclose, that they will not be cheap.

Corey's new "big blue caps"

I haven't gone this far with employing the correct date coded chips and never will, but Corey Cohen is keepin' it true, with new caps from 1976 on his Mimeo-1

Per Corey:  "Now all I need is four .01 of the correct caps and a 1973 5300uf cap (mine is early 1977)"

Very cool.

Sunday, February 3, 2013

First Ever Apple-1 clone w/6800 processor??

Check it out.... Lionel Theunissen has successfully wired his Mimeo-1 rig with a 6800 processor, 6800 monitor, added a few tweaks to address timing issues, and boom!  Up and running.  VERY NICE WORK... the first I've seen!

Thursday, January 24, 2013

The Jobs Movie - Starting April 19th, 2013

 Note Mike Willegal's Mimeo-1 Apple-1 clone, (2 of them) above :D


Images and video clip posted with permission from the filmmaker.

Sunday, December 16, 2012

Apple 1 manual sold for $4050 USD

Earlier today, the well used Apple 1 manual from the Byte Shop (Menlo Park, Californa) sold for $4050.00   All images provided by Alex Z.

Wednesday, December 12, 2012

Early Postcard from 1976

Image source:   Silicon Valley Archives at Stanford University.

Note the prices 665.00...  Allegedly from Mike Rose, referring to the production of the Apple 1 Operation Manual.

About Regis McKenna 

Friday, November 30, 2012

I've been studying this image trying to find differences between the Byte Shop images, and have concluded with certainty, that this keyboard is the same Amkey keyboard that is in the Polaroid images supplied by Paul Terrell.
The Motherboard however, is probably different, supplied with 4k DRAM (as in the Byte Shop images) and notice that the cassette interface edge connector also does not exist on this unit (B&W image).  However, it does not appear to me that the 6800 area of the motherboard has been populated.  The 6820 PIA also appears to be different  (This one is probably the grey AMI S6820 vs. the unknown PIA in the Byte Shop image).

In any case, the Amkey keyboard seems to be the same brand in this image.  So maybe Datanetics wasn't the only way to go.  :D

Monday, November 26, 2012

Early Apple-1 PCB

The article below is from Harry McCracken, Editor @ TIME magazine.  All images here are used with permission, and are provided by Paul Terrell, who opened up the Byte Shop in 1975.  The article link was sent to my by Cameron Cooper.

After a small group of us looked at the PCB images, we noticed this was not a production board,  but a prototype.  We noticed several differences -- the earlier orange sprague capacitors for the power supply, fewer smoothing caps, and in the upper left, components populate the PCB in the 6800 area.  Why? What was this all about?  So I asked the Woz and Wendell Sander if they knew --  See Woz's response below, under the images.

From: ʞɐıuzoʍ ǝʌǝʇs  
Subject: Re: Early Apple 1 PCB ??
Date: November 25, 2012 2:16:56 PM EST
To: John Calande 

good catch

Those components were used to create a stronger, faster clock signal at higher voltage, which was required by the 6501 (and 6800). The 6501 was introduced at $20 when the 6502 was introduced at $25. They were equivalent except for this clocking requirement. I did have at least one 6501 and probably a few more so I most likely constructed this board with it in order to save my more precious 6502. Or I may have just wanted to test that this clock circuitry worked, so we could possibly have shipped Apple I's with lower cost processors.

The main reason the clock circuitry was included went back to my original design, which was for a 6800. The 6800 also needed the better clock signal. I had originally planned on a 6800 since I could get one for $40 from Hewlett Packard, where I was working. But the 6501 came out at $20. My real reason for choosing the 6501 was the indexed addressing modes. I was more a fan of alternate addressing modes, a bit akin to the IBM 360, where register contents were added to form a final address. The 6800 would have been actually the same cost since the $40 deal with HP included a UART (parallel interface chip for keyboard) and a serial chip for modems, as I recall.

ʞɐıuzoʍ ǝʌǝʇs 

On Nov 25, 2012, at 10:59 AM, John Calande ; wrote:
Woz, Wendell,

Wondering if you guys can shed any light on these images from the Byte Shop.

This PCB appears to have a populated 6800 area in the upper left, and the earlier Orange power supply caps.

Is this an early prototype or were there a good portion of PCBs with orange caps?



Tuesday, October 30, 2012

Question for the Woz on the choice of 2513 char gen....

On Oct 30, 2012, at 2:54 PM, John Calande  wrote:
Hi Woz,

I'm guessing the 2513 was a widely used character generator back in the day.  Was there any reason you chose this generator, or were other options available that you considered?




I think it was the main or only character generator at the time…or maybe it's just the one I came across…or maybe it's the one I'd used before…or maybe it was in our lab at HP…no real reason.

I was surprised to find out that using a character generator to put characters on a raster scanned TV was patented by RCA. I figured that using a chip you bought avoided patents like that.
ʞɐıuzoʍ ǝʌǝʇs 

ǝuoz ǝʞɐʍ sı ʌʇ

Monday, October 22, 2012

Corey Cohen's Apple-1 / Mimeo-1 donated to museum

Very nice job on this Mimeo-1.
Corey donated his unit to the March/InfoAge Museum.

Saturday, October 6, 2012

Mike Willegal has received a new shipment of Mimeo-1 PCBs.

SWEET.... time for a hackfest!

Contact him @  :

Thursday, October 4, 2012

There is an unassembled Obtronix Reproduction kit  for sale on ebay


Friday, September 21, 2012

"Newton 1" last breath... well.. we'll see...

According to the seller, these are the last of the "Newton 1" reproductions.   I don't own one, but have heard that the quality is fairly brittle. Price is steep.

Wednesday, August 1, 2012

Apple 1 color question for the Woz...

Hi Woz,

I was watching a video on one of your conferences on Apple history timeline up to the A2.
You mentioned tinkering with eventually adding color to the A1.
Did you find this too much of a task or waste of time for the A1, or did you just move on to the A2?
I'm asking because, I'm wondering if this would be possible on one of the clones, maybe one of us can mess around with.
Wondering if an old MC1372 would work....  I played around with the MC6847, straight-forward stuff - my results here:




From the Woz...

I measured my designs by efficient use of chips.

The Apple I was designed around the U.S. (NTSC) color TV subcarrier frequency so that I could 'try' my digital color idea on it later. But when I went to start adding chips to do this it was about 7 chips alone for the basic timing (things like NTSC sync signals) and I saw that it would be more chips to generate color from my cycling text memory. I see now that it would have worked but thinking about this problem led me to incredible chip efficiencies and reductions of the Apple II. I don't have time to get into detail about it now but there were many other reasons to move to the Apple ][, the main one being the speed of character/graphics management moving from a shifting display memory to normal RAM.


ʞɐıuzoʍ ǝʌǝʇs 

It doesn't work that way
-- Ariana Gilles, John and the Monster


And followup -- From the Woz...

and somewhere in my files is my short exercise trying to design some color stuff for the Apple I but the Apple lawyers took all my working papers for a lawsuit and I never got them back.
ʞɐıuzoʍ ǝʌǝʇs 

Monday, July 30, 2012

Good stuff...   Here's the Woz....

Wednesday, July 25, 2012

Although this isn't exactly precise, it's a "nice to have" item for a clone.  I bought 2 of these on eslay for about 10 bucks each.  It includes the "PRELIMINARY APPLE BASIC USERS MANUAL  OCTOBER 1976" and schematics.   However... I did not see any documentation for the cassette interface :<

BTW.... don't leave these manuals in any light... they will fade to purple... as mine did.  

Saturday, July 21, 2012

Signetics 2519B are on the way....

I was scolded for being so vague so here you go:

I've ordered a good handful of the ever elusive Signetics 2519B shift registers, allegedly with date codes from 1974-1976.  I do not have them on hand yet, but will post more info when I do.

FWIW, 2519N will work as well... if you can find them :D

Thursday, June 21, 2012

Apple-1 fever - After last Friday's Sotheby's auction, apparently it's time to cash in if you own one.

Estimate:  100k - 150k

Up for auction at Christie's

Thanks for tipping me off on this one Corey!

Monday, June 18, 2012

Check it out, an Apple-1 clone, the Mimeo-1 made by Mike Willegal, sells on ebay for 2k+ (USD) yesterday --
Note, this unit was sold as an unassembled kit, but included the Stancor p-8667 and 8380 power supply transformers.

You may still be able to view the listing while it lasts.... here

Friday, June 15, 2012

I have no words.....

Here's a nice pic of the Sotheby's unit (iPhone pic courtesy of Corey Cohen who was lucky enough to check it out in person!)

Thursday, June 14, 2012

So Sotheby's will be auctioning an Apple-1 tomorrow.   My friend Corey Cohen tipped me off on this link...

Apparently, another Apple-1 was sold on ebay last week for 70k but I missed it (per Mike Willegal).

Friday, January 27, 2012

Apple Video Recalling the early days

Here's a youtube video with some nice pics of the first hand-wired Apple-1, and an Apple-2 prototype from 1977  (If I'm not mistaken, this Apple II was sold on ebay about a year ago).

Above: Stack of the Apple-1 white boxes, probably in Steve Jobs' room on Crist Drive.
UPDATE:  I was just informed by Cameron Cooper that this was actually Patti's room (Steve's sister) before they moved into the garage.  Info is from Daniel Kottke.

Below: Hand-wired Apple-1 computer.

Thursday, January 26, 2012

Apple-1 BASIC firmware card youtube Demo

I finally got around to doing a video -- enjoy.

Apple-1 BASIC Firmware Card

View the Schematic

Monday, December 12, 2011

Another Apple 1 up for auction on ebay - 175,000.00 USD

This is one I believe most of us have not seen before.
This was previously owned by an Apple employee back in the 70s.

From the listing description:

"Original Apple 1 Computer made and purchased in 1976. A keyboard that was used with it will be included. Also a copy of the owners manual signed by Woz. Special courier delivery and payment
arrangements- contact by email through ebay. No shipping fee. Joe Copson Nameplate for viewing- not included in sale. will provide a copy of his resume with Apple if requested.
There is a serial number on the back of the computer 01-00##. In answer to all of your questions.
It is a real original Apple1 computer. Joseph Charles Copson worked for Atari and Apple as a programmer and troubleshooter. He worked with Michael Kisor who was a
Senior Software engineer with Apple- he collaborated with Joe on the diagnostic software for the Macintosh. Joe also worked on the Cray supercomputer. He loved technology and served his country in Vietnam which may have eventually caused his death from cancer 3-5-2003.

He wrote the program for Atari games such as Star Raider, Spitfire on the Silver 1.
Look up his name on google under atari age. I would like this Apple 1 cared for as an American Technological historical treasure. Not to be used but to be cared for. To remain in the United States. In that way it would truly honor Joseph Charles Copson Army USAR Control group- Fld Radio Mechanic 1971."