Saturday, May 20, 2017

Sold for 90,000 Euros.


Saturday, May 13, 2017


Tuesday, May 9, 2017

Milestone-Proposal:Introduction of the Apple I Computer: 1976

I've been corresponding with Brian Berg, who was involved in overseeing the milestone-proposals for the first Mac, the Apple 1, and the Apple II.

See the milestone-proposal document for the Apple I here.


Brian Berg has been a data storage technologist for over 30 years through his Berg Software Design consultancy. His current specialty is flash memory as used in consumer electronics and enterprise applications, and he works extensively with patents and intellectual property. Brian is Technical Chair of Flash Memory Summit, and he has organized, chaired and spoken at over 100 technology conferences and events including at the Computer History Museum.

Brian has a long record as an IEEE officer and volunteer in the Santa Clara Valley Section, including as Section Chair as well as Chair of the IEEE Consultants’ Network of Silicon Valley. As IEEE Milestone Coordinator for the western US, he has secured Milestones for the EEPROM/Flash Memory, the Apple Macintosh and SHAKEY, and he helped oversee Milestones for CP/M, Moore’s Law, and the Apple I and II. He is a CHM Core Member, has a Bachelors in Mathematics from Pacific Lutheran University, and has been a Computer Engineering graduate student at Stanford University.

Monday, May 8, 2017

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:

I owe great gratitude to the following people who have helped me in my research, especially Steve Wozniak, who has painstakingly taken the time to answer my questions over the years.

If you have contributed, and you are not on the list, please contact me - John Calande, or comment on this post.

Steve Wozniak  (Woz) - early history in detail, and providing me with contact info with the early Apple engineers, and others.
Steve Jobs - early history
Daniel Kottke - early history
Mike Willegal - hardware hacking, late night debugging and history. Mike also had produced a run of beautiful Apple 1 clone PCB/Kits - known as the "Mimeo 1", and also cloned my Datanetics keyboard. Thanks Mike!
Corey Cohen - hardware hacking and history
Steve Galby - hardware hacking - created the first clone - from "Obtronix"
Allen Baum - early history
Randy Wigginton - early history
Alice Robertson - (Wozs' former wife) early history
Brian Berg (IEEE) - early history - info on Hewlett Packard, where Woz worked, and informed me of the Milestone-Proposals for the Apple 1.
Bill Fernandez - early history
Dan Sokol - early history
John Draper - early history
Stan Mintz - early history
John Gott - early history
Wendell Sander - early history, hardware hacking, and providing me with his design for the keyboard interface which I used on all 3 of my clones.  Wendell designed the Apple III, and also worked closely with Woz on the Apple II.
Fred McCann - for providing links to current articles on early history (many still incorrect)
Lisa Reynolds Marshall - my former wife, and mother of my 2 beautiful children, who put up with all of my late night hacking

I have made some great friends, and wonderful acquaintances along the way.
Thank you all so much!

Saturday, May 6, 2017


This is a video from some of the guys that started the Homebrew Compuer Club.  The club was started on March 5, 1975, but this date is questionable, as mentioned in the video.

(Computer History.org)
Let's take a closer look where Steve Wozniak designed, built and hand-wired the VERY FIRST Apple-1.

Villa Serra Apartments
20800 Homestead Rd, Apt 16K
Cupertino, CA 95014
Phone number(408) 257-1060

When Steve Wozniak lived in the apartments at the above address, the name of the complex was known as:

Villa Serra Apartments

Apparently, the complex had an overhaul, and was later renamed:

The Markham Apartments





I asked Woz if he remembered the apartment number, and this is his response:

I don’t remember the apartment number.

I had a lower apartment early on at that complex but very soon moved to an upstairs one…something like 22L or 24L I think but I have no reason to think that, especially the number. I might be able to find the exact apartment location in person.

I’d say that maybe half of the design and conception and most of the software work was done in that apartment, but the real prototype construction was done in my cubicle at HP, mostly at night. I’d go home from work, eat a tv-dinner, watch Star Trek, and often head back to the building. I sometimes worked on HP stuff at night but usually my own fun constructions.

There are people who may have old address books with my apartment number. I have too many artifacts in too much storage to find it myself, although I’ll keep an eye out. You might also consider HP records. The APD division is now in Corvalliis, Oregon.

Actually, I may have been in the upstairs apartment at first and then moved. I do remember that it was the upstairs apartment where I ran at least part of dial-a-joke, which was ahead of the Apple stuff.

ʞɐıuzoʍ ǝʌǝʇs 


Per Brian Berg (IEEE):
BTW, it would be nice to add that the HP facility to which Woz refers is the one on Pruneridge Ave in Cupertino - where Apple Park is now, interestingly!


This is the VERY FIRST Apple-1 ever built, in Steve Wozniak's apartment, and after hours at HP.  It is hand-wired, and soldered underneath.  The wooden case was built by Randy Wigginton's father.  I asked Woz where this computer is, he said it may be in storage.  At one point it was on display, I believe at Apple Computer, Inc.


UPDATE:  Sun May 7, 2017 - Randy Wigginton's memory recollects that the Apple-1 was built in apartment #16K, on the second floor:

Hi John,

Yeah, I would know it if I went there in person; it might be 16K, for some reason that feels right.  I do know that his phone number back then was 408-255-6666. When he built the Apple I he was in an upstairs apartment; I never visited him in a downstairs apartment.  He drove the worst car in the world - a Fiat :)
Next time I am down that way I will drive to the complex and take a look - I'm curious myself now.
Randy

After informing Woz, here's his response:

WOW

16K feels very correct to me…strong enough that I’m very sure it’s right. 2nd floor.
ʞɐıuzoʍ ǝʌǝʇs 

I checked the above number 255-6666 and verified that this was the number that Woz asked for, for his dial-a-joke biz  (reference, page 130, "iWoz" book, published in 2006).






Micro Switch Keyboard used on the Apple-1
(image obtained from Time.com)



Friday, May 5, 2017

Wow!  This is the first 2519B shift register from Signetics I've ever seen on ebay (2 available) $110 And all of us who have had to shop around know that they are very hard to find!
Date code 1974.  (I found 11 in Germany and had to purchase the whole tube!)

By the way - the seller is the same guy I purchased my Datanetics keyboard  from years ago (serial number 10, stamped May 1976)   ( A few years ago, Mike Willegal cloned my keyboard I don't know if Mike has any kits left - from what I recall he had a relatively small production run)  Anyway, the seller generally has pretty fair prices - but he knows this chip is rare.

This one looks to be plastic, I believe mine are ceramic, I'd have to double check.




And there's another one on ebay here  (plastic) - 3 available, $120 each



Interview with Steve Wozniak at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California. (January 11, 2011)


Thursday, May 4, 2017

 "Steve Jobs’ custom Apple I and other historic machines are on display at Seattle museum
Long before the iPhone or even the Mac, Apple was a handful of people working in an industry that was only just beginning to take the idea of personal computing seriously. In the earliest days of those early days, Steves Wozniak and Jobs made their first device together: the Apple I. Few of these were sold, and fewer still survive — but the Living Computers museum in Seattle managed to get three. And one of them was Jobs’ personal machine.
Paul Allen, the museum’s founder and patron, has caused to be assembled quite an impressive collection of devices from Apple’s history, many of which have been restored to working condition. The public will be able to tinker with a NeXT Cube as well as early Macs, but the pride and joy of the collection must be the Apple Is.
The new exhibit, which highlights the collaboration and competition between Apple and Microsoft over the years as the companies grew, is open today.
The Apple I, you may or may not remember, wasn’t much of a hit. Only 200 were made — by hand — and it wasn’t long before the company put its hopes in the Apple II, which would go on to be more popular by far. One of the Is, however, Jobs kept in his office as a demo machine for industry people.
When Jobs left in 1985 he left in a hurry, and this I was left behind on a shelf. Don Hutmacher, one of the company’s first employees, grabbed it and it stayed in his possession until he passed away last year. His wife generously allowed the museum to take care of it, and you can imagine their gratitude.
The team had their suspicious, but a tag inside the metal chassis — and the fact that it had a chassis at all, since Apple Is came just as boards — suggested it was more than a rare Apple I; it was the rarest. It’s signed “BF,” which would have been employee number one, Bill Fernandez. This was definitely, the team decided, Jobs’ custom machine.
Because the Apple I didn’t have a ROM, and Jobs didn’t want to have to program it from scratch any time someone wanted to see it in action, he had a custom EPROM attached to it that initialized the computer with BASIC when it started up. Its RAM, the engineering team suspects, was also augmented so it didn’t run out and crash during the demo.

The team at the museum read the contents of this EPROM and used it to set up a second, less historic Apple I. That one, which has had its power components modified to be a little less prone to catching fire or warping the circuit board, will now be available in this primed state for anyone to play with. Yes, anyone — the only operational Apple I on the planet right now, and your kid can type “butts” on it with fingers still greasy from the sandwich they got across the street.
That’s the mission of the museum, though: the Apple I, along with dozens of other ancient computers, from Altairs to mainframes from the 60’s, are deliberately there to be touched and, if not truly understood (few kids know BASIC these days), at least experienced.
Ahead of the exhibit’s opening, a small reunion was held for a handful of people who had a hand in the early days of Apple, Microsoft, and the home computer industry. Steve Wozniak and Paul Allen met — for the first time, amazingly — and chatted over an Apple II. And it wasn’t until someone took stock of the situation that they realized that the entire original team that built the Apple I in Steve Jobs’ garage — minus the departed Steve — were together again for the first time in decades:
The museum has also been working with the University of Washington to compile an oral history of this era of computing, and many of the people who figured in the creation of the Apple I.
Now that the exhibit is open, feel free to drop by the museum and touch a few pieces of computing history — though you may need to brush up on your BASIC."

Notified of this article by Fred McCann

==========================================
 (per John Calande)- Unfortunately, this article is plastered all over the internet now.  Anyway, there are some good pics here  (Living Computer Museum + Labs) I'm extremely surprised that the museum is going to allow the general public to play with such a delicate piece of Apple history.  This computer belongs in the Smithsonian.

Some of us know that parts of the above article are completely false. I've done my best on my BLOG to correct false statements about about Apple history by going directly to the horses mouth (Woz), yet false information continues to appear, to this day, as above.

1. This is not the only original, functional Apple-1 in existence.  After checking the Living Computers website, I think what the author meant to say, the only functional Apple-1 that would be available for use by the general public. 

2. Apple-1 PCB assembly that took place in Steve Jobs' garage - Per Woz:

"The Apple I boards were manufactured and populated with components (sockets for the chips) and wave soldered at some company in Santa Clara. Those boards were driven to the house, and later the garage, where we inserted the chips and tested them. We did no soldering there.



3. The very first hand-wired Apple-1, per Woz:
My development work was all done in my apartment in the Villa Serra complex on Homestead Road, between Mary and Stelling. Also, much was done in my cubicle at HP's calculator division (APD) which was then in Cupertino, on Pruneridge Avenue (19925?) slightly East of Wolfe Road."


 At some point, Woz told me that Steve Jobs didn't know about the Apple-1 until after Woz started his design for the Apple II

3. I didn't know that an EPROM existed for an Apple-1 until seeing this article, I thought I was the first one in the world to design and build a peripheral card for The BASIC. My schematic and pics are here on my BLOG, and I have a video to show that it works.

Here is the schematic for my design, and other info (note that I found a bug in one of the BASIC files, so be careful which file you download if you are going to take on this project) 


4. The events that took place in Steve Jobs' garage were "stuffing" the printed circuit boards with chips, and debugging bad boards - according to Woz, the most common problem was bent pins.



Monday, January 2, 2017


I donated my best Apple-1 replica to the University of Connecticut, School of Engineering where I used work.  I used very hard to find (and expensive!) gold and ceramic chips to get as close as possible to the original Apple-1.

Wednesday, April 30, 2014

Tuesday, April 8, 2014

Apple WOZPACK book reproduction.

Reproduction of the book containing Woz's hand written notes and other technical stuff, from the Apple-1 and Apple II days.


Assembled Apple-1 clone for sale

Clone of the "NTI" run.
For sale - 2,500.00 USD

Friday, April 4, 2014

Apple 1 blog update

Hi Everyone,

Just to let everyone know, I have been in transition lately - relocating, exploring new work options, etc.  I will pick up again when I get settled.

John

Tuesday, October 29, 2013

Steve Job's "childhood" home to become Historic Designation (and comments from Woz)

"The Silicon Valley home where Apple co-founder Steve Jobs grew up and built some of his first computers is now on the city's list of historic properties.
The historical commission in the city of Los Altos voted unanimously for the historic designation on Monday night, the Palo Alto Daily News reported. Any proposed renovations to the modest, ranch-style home now require additional review.
The home, where Jobs and his foster parents moved in 1968, is currently owned by Patricia Jobs, Steve Jobs' sister. The commission didn't need her permission for the designation, although she could appeal it to the city council.
Zachary Dahl, a senior planner with the city, said Patricia Jobs requested corrections to the city's evaluation of the property, but then didn't respond when it was sent to her for review.
"So I'm assuming that was an affirmative because I have had multiple communications with her over the past several weeks," Dahl said.
Steve Jobs, with help from his sister and Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak, built the first 100 Apple 1 computers at the home, according to the city's evaluation. Fifty were sold to a shop in neighboring Mountain View for $500 each.
Steve Jobs also wooed some of Apple's first investors and in 1976, established the first partnership for Apple at the home. The company later relocated to nearby Cupertino."
© 2013 The Associated Press.

Image Credit - Mercury News. 




John's comment: 

A snip of the above is false --  the computer(s) were designed and built by Steve Wozniak in his apartment, not far away.  They were not designed and built by Woz and Jobs... Woz did this ON HIS OWN.

After Printed Circuit Boards were fabricated (in 2 runs), based on Steve Wozniaks hand-wired design (after several iterations); Legend holds that Patricia, and a couple of her friends were paid $1.00 per board, to "stuff" components, in the "garage".   Jobs and Woz would then test each board, and pull components and re-stuff when pins were bent.

"I'd get yelled at if I bent a prong," Patricia Jobs told The Daily News in an interview last month.
(source, Mercury News, Sept 2013)

  So this whole bit, about Job's designing and building the Apple-1 in the garage, is completely FALSE.   Steve Wozniak did this on his own.  The prefabricated printed circuit boards (PCBs) were then stuffed with components, by Jobs, sis, and friends, in the "garage", afterwards.


So I pinged the Woz, and here is what he had to say:

Thanks.

In fact, both the Apple I and Apple ][ had been created and shown off at the Homebrew computer club before Steve Jobs knew they existed. I had given the Apple I design away for free to everyone there. At least one other club member had built one too.

No design ever took place in the garage. Nor did the manufacturing. The business took place in Steve Jobs’ bedroom, at least in the early days. He got parts and sales and publicity on his phone.

ʞɐıuzoʍ ǝʌǝʇs 

tv is wake zone

Wednesday, September 11, 2013

6800 Info from the Woz per Lionel Theunissen's Rig up and running the 6800

Woz's comments on Lionel Theunissen's A-1 rig running the 6800 cpu --



"I designed the computer for the 6800. The Apple I board even has an area for a dozen parts labelled "for 6800"…it also had to have these parts for the 6501, which was a barely cheaper version of the 6502. What these parts did was supply a faster harder clock signal to the chip. Otherwise, the pinouts of the 6800 and 6052 were compatible.

I could buy a 6800 for $40 as an HP employee. That's why I designed the computer for it. Then the 6502 got introduced for $25 ($20 for the 6501). I switched because it was better (in my judgment, with more addressing modes) and cheaper.

The Apple I ran on a 256-byte program, burned into 2 PROMs. We didn't have much memory density back then for these programmable chips. All you'd have have to do is to read my program (given away publicly) with the comments, and translate it to 6800 code. Tight, but doable.

The cassette board, for using a cassette tape drive to store programs, had a 256-byte program of its own on the board. In this case it was in one chip, as I recall. That too would have to be converted to 6800 language for a more complete project.

The next step would be to find some public domain 6800 BASIC and convert it to run in the memory addresses of this computer.


All-in-all, not too hard. But it's a special project worthy of commendation."

ʞɐıuzoʍ ǝʌǝʇs 

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Another white ceramic 6502 and an 6820


Wow!  you can get both the 6502 and 6802s AMI for just $2500.00 USD (Again, amazingly enough, free shipping [economy])

6502 = 1975 Date Code
6820 = 1976 Date Code

Pretty cool (but I have to wonder if they are still functional)


6502 CPU white ceramic (1976 Date Code)



Ebay   Only 1250.00 USD  (Or best offer, and who can beat "Free Shipping!!!!")


And yet another (1977 Date code) White Ceramic 6502


Just 999.00 USD !!!!

Friday, September 6, 2013

Monday, July 1, 2013

Woz, Wendell Sander - Five Apple-1 computers

Read the article by Steve Cassidy --  Image credit Mercury News.



Early Woz interview - Good stuff, great early video and images

Very cool video and images you may not have seen before...  although the title of the clip is wrong, check it out, early Apple 1 / Nolan Bushnell / Woz history --




Tuesday, March 5, 2013


Coming up for auction next week -- This one is functional.

Read about it here.

6301-1J PROM (A1 thru A4) from 1976

I'll have about 3 sets of the 6301-1J PROMs, programmed and available for purchase.  I will hang on to a few but willing to sell the others for any fanatics that want chips from 1976.  They are currently on order so I will drop some images once they arrive.  They were VERY expensive so I must disclose, that they will not be cheap.


Corey's new "big blue caps"

I haven't gone this far with employing the correct date coded chips and never will, but Corey Cohen is keepin' it true, with new caps from 1976 on his Mimeo-1

Per Corey:  "Now all I need is four .01 of the correct caps and a 1973 5300uf cap (mine is early 1977)"


Very cool.

Sunday, February 3, 2013

First Ever Apple-1 clone w/6800 processor??

Check it out.... Lionel Theunissen has successfully wired his Mimeo-1 rig with a 6800 processor, 6800 monitor, added a few tweaks to address timing issues, and boom!  Up and running.  VERY NICE WORK... the first I've seen!






Thursday, January 24, 2013

The Jobs Movie - Starting April 19th, 2013


 Note Mike Willegal's Mimeo-1 Apple-1 clone, (2 of them) above :D



video

Images and video clip posted with permission from the filmmaker.

Sunday, December 16, 2012

Apple 1 manual sold for $4050 USD

Earlier today, the well used Apple 1 manual from the Byte Shop (Menlo Park, Californa) sold for $4050.00   All images provided by Alex Z.









Wednesday, December 12, 2012

Early Postcard from 1976

Image source:   Silicon Valley Archives at Stanford University.

Note the prices 665.00...  Allegedly from Mike Rose, referring to the production of the Apple 1 Operation Manual.



About Regis McKenna 

Friday, November 30, 2012

I've been studying this image trying to find differences between the Byte Shop images, and have concluded with certainty, that this keyboard is the same Amkey keyboard that is in the Polaroid images supplied by Paul Terrell.
The Motherboard however, is probably different, supplied with 4k DRAM (as in the Byte Shop images) and notice that the cassette interface edge connector also does not exist on this unit (B&W image).  However, it does not appear to me that the 6800 area of the motherboard has been populated.  The 6820 PIA also appears to be different  (This one is probably the grey AMI S6820 vs. the unknown PIA in the Byte Shop image).

In any case, the Amkey keyboard seems to be the same brand in this image.  So maybe Datanetics wasn't the only way to go.  :D


Monday, November 26, 2012

Early Apple-1 PCB

The article below is from Harry McCracken, Editor @ TIME magazine.  All images here are used with permission, and are provided by Paul Terrell, who opened up the Byte Shop in 1975.  The article link was sent to my by Cameron Cooper.

After a small group of us looked at the PCB images, we noticed this was not a production board,  but a prototype.  We noticed several differences -- the earlier orange sprague capacitors for the power supply, fewer smoothing caps, and in the upper left, components populate the PCB in the 6800 area.  Why? What was this all about?  So I asked the Woz and Wendell Sander if they knew --  See Woz's response below, under the images.

http://techland.time.com/2012/11/22/behold-some-of-the-first-apple-computer-photos-ever/









From: ʞɐıuzoʍ ǝʌǝʇs  
Subject: Re: Early Apple 1 PCB ??
Date: November 25, 2012 2:16:56 PM EST
To: John Calande 

good catch

Those components were used to create a stronger, faster clock signal at higher voltage, which was required by the 6501 (and 6800). The 6501 was introduced at $20 when the 6502 was introduced at $25. They were equivalent except for this clocking requirement. I did have at least one 6501 and probably a few more so I most likely constructed this board with it in order to save my more precious 6502. Or I may have just wanted to test that this clock circuitry worked, so we could possibly have shipped Apple I's with lower cost processors.

The main reason the clock circuitry was included went back to my original design, which was for a 6800. The 6800 also needed the better clock signal. I had originally planned on a 6800 since I could get one for $40 from Hewlett Packard, where I was working. But the 6501 came out at $20. My real reason for choosing the 6501 was the indexed addressing modes. I was more a fan of alternate addressing modes, a bit akin to the IBM 360, where register contents were added to form a final address. The 6800 would have been actually the same cost since the $40 deal with HP included a UART (parallel interface chip for keyboard) and a serial chip for modems, as I recall.

ʞɐıuzoʍ ǝʌǝʇs 




On Nov 25, 2012, at 10:59 AM, John Calande ; wrote:
Woz, Wendell,

Wondering if you guys can shed any light on these images from the Byte Shop.

This PCB appears to have a populated 6800 area in the upper left, and the earlier Orange power supply caps.

Is this an early prototype or were there a good portion of PCBs with orange caps?





Best,

John

Tuesday, October 30, 2012

Question for the Woz on the choice of 2513 char gen....




On Oct 30, 2012, at 2:54 PM, John Calande  wrote:
Hi Woz,

I'm guessing the 2513 was a widely used character generator back in the day.  Was there any reason you chose this generator, or were other options available that you considered?

Best,

John

<<<

I think it was the main or only character generator at the time…or maybe it's just the one I came across…or maybe it's the one I'd used before…or maybe it was in our lab at HP…no real reason.

I was surprised to find out that using a character generator to put characters on a raster scanned TV was patented by RCA. I figured that using a chip you bought avoided patents like that.
ʞɐıuzoʍ ǝʌǝʇs 


ǝuoz ǝʞɐʍ sı ʌʇ

Monday, October 22, 2012

Corey Cohen's Apple-1 / Mimeo-1 donated to museum

Very nice job on this Mimeo-1.
Corey donated his unit to the March/InfoAge Museum.


Saturday, October 6, 2012

Mike Willegal has received a new shipment of Mimeo-1 PCBs.

SWEET.... time for a hackfest!

Contact him @  :  mike@willegal.net





Thursday, October 4, 2012

There is an unassembled Obtronix Reproduction kit  for sale on ebay

UPDATE:


Friday, September 21, 2012

"Newton 1" last breath... well.. we'll see...


According to the seller, these are the last of the "Newton 1" reproductions.   I don't own one, but have heard that the quality is fairly brittle. Price is steep.










Wednesday, August 1, 2012

Apple 1 color question for the Woz...


Hi Woz,

I was watching a video on one of your conferences on Apple history timeline up to the A2.
You mentioned tinkering with eventually adding color to the A1.
Did you find this too much of a task or waste of time for the A1, or did you just move on to the A2?
I'm asking because, I'm wondering if this would be possible on one of the clones, maybe one of us can mess around with.
Wondering if an old MC1372 would work....  I played around with the MC6847, straight-forward stuff - my results here:


Best,

John

---------

From the Woz...


I measured my designs by efficient use of chips.

The Apple I was designed around the U.S. (NTSC) color TV subcarrier frequency so that I could 'try' my digital color idea on it later. But when I went to start adding chips to do this it was about 7 chips alone for the basic timing (things like NTSC sync signals) and I saw that it would be more chips to generate color from my cycling text memory. I see now that it would have worked but thinking about this problem led me to incredible chip efficiencies and reductions of the Apple II. I don't have time to get into detail about it now but there were many other reasons to move to the Apple ][, the main one being the speed of character/graphics management moving from a shifting display memory to normal RAM.

best,

ʞɐıuzoʍ ǝʌǝʇs 

It doesn't work that way
-- Ariana Gilles, John and the Monster

----------

And followup -- From the Woz...


and somewhere in my files is my short exercise trying to design some color stuff for the Apple I but the Apple lawyers took all my working papers for a lawsuit and I never got them back.
ʞɐıuzoʍ ǝʌǝʇs 






Monday, July 30, 2012

Good stuff...   Here's the Woz....



Wednesday, July 25, 2012

Although this isn't exactly precise, it's a "nice to have" item for a clone.  I bought 2 of these on eslay for about 10 bucks each.  It includes the "PRELIMINARY APPLE BASIC USERS MANUAL  OCTOBER 1976" and schematics.   However... I did not see any documentation for the cassette interface :<



BTW.... don't leave these manuals in any light... they will fade to purple... as mine did.